Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) also known as hip replacement surgery is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of the hip joint and its replacement with an artificial joint. This surgery is usually done to ease pain and improve mobility in patients with hip joint dysfunction caused by different diseases.

Total Hip Arthroplasty is recommended for:

Osteoarthritis: Osteoarthritis, which involves the wearing out of the cartilage and underlying bone of the joint, is the primary cause of hip replacement.

Rheumatoid Arthritis: A disease that affects the immune system and leads to inflammation of the joints on a persistent basis.

Post-Traumatic Arthritis: Arthritis occurring as a result of injury to the hip joint.

Avascular Necrosis: The loss of bone tissue due to insufficient blood supply, which is sometimes related to the long-term use of corticosteroids or heavy drinking.

Childhood Hip Disease: Disorders like hip dysplasia may lead to hip joint issues in later years.


Preoperative Preparation: This entails a detailed medical examination, diagnostic imaging and physiologic tests. Some patients are required to discontinue using some drugs and may require preoperative physiotherapy.

Anesthesia: Depending on the patient’s condition and choice, general or regional anesthesia is administered.

Surgical Technique:

Incision: An incision is made on the side or the back of the hip.

Removal of Damaged Joint: The femoral head (the ball of the hip joint) is excised and the acetabulum (the hip socket) is reamed.

Implantation: A metal, ceramic or plastic prosthetic socket is screwed into the acetabulum. The femoral component, which is a metal stem with a ball at the top, is then inserted into the femur.

Closure: The wound is then stitched or stapled and a dressing is then placed on it.

Postoperative Care

Pain Management: Pain relief medications include opioids, NSAIDs, and local anaesthetics.

Rehabilitation: Physical therapy starts immediately after surgery to help the patient regain movement and improve the strength of the hip muscles.

Activity Restrictions: Some movement and activities are discouraged in order to prevent dislocation or injury of the newly placed joint.

Follow-Up: Follow up visits to the surgeon to assess the progress of the wound and the performance of the prosthesis.

Risks and Complications

Infection: Can happen at the site of the incision or in the deeper structures of the hip joint.

Blood Clots: Postoperative DVT or PE may happen.

Dislocation: If the hip is not taken care of properly, the prosthetic components can become dislocated.

Leg Length Discrepancy: The operated leg may end up being slightly longer or shorter than the other.

Wear and Tear: The prosthetic components may wear out at some point and this may call for a revision surgery.


The majority of patients have reported reduced pain and enhanced joint mobility after undergoing total hip arthroplasty. The progress in surgical procedures and the development of new prosthetic technologies have enhanced the efficacy and durability of hip replacement surgeries. Continued care and compliance with the set rehabilitation plans are crucial to recovery and future functioning.


Total Hip Arthroplasty is a very successful surgical procedure used in the management of end-stage hip arthritis and other hip joint disorders. By carefully selecting the patients, using proper surgical methods, and providing proper care after the surgery, most patients experience significant reductions in pain and improvements in function, thus improving their quality of life.